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Osama bin Mohammed bin Avad bin Laden (Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن; March 10, 1957, Riyadh – May 2, 2011, Abbottabad) is the founding leader of the Islamist armed organization al-Qaeda. Bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian citizen until he was denaturalized in 1994 and became stateless, is a member of the bin Laden family.

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Osama bin Laden, whose origin is the Kinde tribe in Yemen, was born in Riyadh. He went to Pakistan in 1979 and joined the mujahideen forces fighting against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. Today, he was the leading figure who founded al-Qaeda in 1988, which is defined as a terrorist organization by various international organizations and countries. He was exiled from Saudi Arabia in 1992 and settled in Sudan. Due to the pressure of the United States of America, he left in 1996 and started to organize in Afghanistan. In the Gulf War, when American soldiers were deployed to Saudi Arabia, which is home to two of the holiest places of Muslims, bin Laden said that Islam was insulted and that it would be avenged. Along with some prominent mujahids, he organized anti-United States groups in the Middle East. In 1998, it was included by the FBI on Ten Most Wanted Fugitives (“The Ten Most Wanted Fugitives”) and Most Wanted Terrorists (“Most Wanted Terrorists”) lists after attacks on US embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi with bomb-laden trucks. It became the number one target sought within the scope of the War on Terrorism launched after the September 11 attacks in 2001. He was killed on May 2, 2011, as a result of a secret operation by American special forces after it was found that he was staying in a complex in the city of Abbottabad, Pakistan.

^ a b c “Text: Osama bin Laden’s 1998 interview” (in English). theguardian.com. October 8, 2001.Archived from the original on May 10, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2015.

^ a b c d e f Coll, Steve (December 12, 2005). “Young Osama”. The New Yorker (in English). Archived from the original on November 11, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2015.

^ “Interview with US Author Steve Coll: ‘Osama bin Laden is Planning Something for the US Election'”. Der Spiegel (in English). April 2, 2008.Archived from the original on February 5, 2015. Retrieved February 15, 2015.

^ “Osama bin Laden”. The Economist (in English). May 5, 2011.Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2015.

^ Beyer, Lisa (September 24, 2001). “The Most Wanted Man in the World”. Time (in English). Archived from the original on February 9, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2015.

^ a b c d Fisk, Robert (December 6, 1993). “Anti-Soviet warrior puts his army on the road to peace: The Saudi businessman who recruited mujahedin now uses them for large-scale building projects in Sudan.

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